The sources of scattering of artificial sea ice were determined, backscatter measurements semi-quantitatively were compared with theoretical predictions, and inexpensive polarimetric radars were developed for sea ice backscatter studies. A brief review of the dielectric properties of sea ice and of commonly used surface and volume scattering theories is presented. A description is provided of the backscatter measurements performed and experimental techniques used. The development of inexpensive short-range polarimetric radars is discussed. The steps taken to add polarimetric capability to a simple FM-W radar are considered as are sample polarimetric phase measurements of the radar. Ice surface characterization data and techniques are discussed, including computation of surface rms height and correlation length and air bubble distribution statistics. A method is also presented of estimating the standard deviation of rms height and correlation length for cases of few data points. Comparisons were made of backscatter measurements and theory. It was determined that backscatter from an extremely smooth saline ice surface at C band cannot be attributed only to surface scatter. It was found that snow cover had a significant influence on backscatter from extremely smooth saline ice at C band.